SHARING Compassion Science; CONCEPT BY CONCEPT

SEARCH BY LETTER

A-I

J-S

T-Z

A B

A

Action compassion:

The actions that attempt to relieve physical and emotional pain. Source: Paul Ekman,  Moving Toward Global Compassion pp. 13-16, https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/ 


Affective: 

Pertaining to emotion or feeling. Often contrasted with cognitive, which refers to cognition or thought.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Affective Empathy

Feeling an emotional resonance with another. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Altruistic motivation:

Altruistic motivation—a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing another’s welfare Source: Batson, C.D. (2011). Altruism in Humans, Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341065.001.0001/acprof-9780195341065-chapter-2   


 Aspirational compassion:

 A compassion that is more cognitive than emotional, an aspiration or intention. Source: Paul Ekman,  Moving Toward Global Compassion pp. 13-16,  https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/ 


B

Burnout: 

A state of emotional exhaustion. This can come about due to over-empathizing with others if that empathy is more empathic distress (which is self-oriented) than empathic concern (which is other-oriented).  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   



C

C

Cognition: 

Mental processes such as awareness, evaluation, recognition, and memory. While even simple awareness is a cognitive process, usually this term is used to refer to higher-order cognitive processes such as thinking.Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu 


Cognitive Empathy

Using the power of reason to try and place oneself in the other person’s situation to try and understand what the other person is thinking or feeling.  Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/   


Compassion/Empathy Fade

The reduction in compassion or empathy as the number of those suffering increases. When one sees a single person suffering or in need, they may feel a tremendous amount of compassion or empathy for them; if the number of sufferers increases, however, one’s sense of concern tends to go down.Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/   


Common Humanity: 

Focusing on what is the same about all human beings, such as the wish for greater well-being and an avoidance of suffering.Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/   


Common Humanity: 

The principle that all people, regardless of their differences, are similar and therefore equal at a fundamental human level. These similarities include being born, aging and dying; wishing to have happiness and avoid unnecessary suffering; having emotions; having a body; requiring the help of others to grow and survive.Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu 


Compassion: 

The wish to alleviate the suffering of another. Compassion consists of noticing suffering, having empathic concern, and feeling a sense of agency. It does not mean simply giving others what they want but recognizing on a deeper level what they need. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/ 


Compassion:

Compassion is an emotion involving the wish to relieve or prevent the suffering of another out of a genuine concern for their well-being and a sense of tenderness and care for them. Compassion as an enduring capability refers to cultivating a way of relating to oneself, others, and humanity as a whole through kindness, empathy, and a concern for one’s own and others’ happiness and suffering. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   


Compassion based ethics:

 An approach to ethics where basic human values such as compassion are derived from common sense, common experience, and science, rather than from a particular religion or ideology. This form of ethics is intended to be compatible with individuals of any or no religious faith.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   


 Compassionate Integrity:

"Compassionate integrity: the ability to live one’s life in accordance with one’s values with a recognition of common humanity, our basic orientation to kindness, and reciprocity" Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/ 


Concerned compassion:

A concern for the person who is suffering, emphasizing the compassionate person’s motivation — a desire, urge, or feeling—to alleviate suffering.Source: Paul Ekman,  Moving Toward Global Compassion pp. 13-16,  https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/


Conscientious Compassion: 

When the commitment to justice comes together and coalesces with the spirit of love, what results is conscientious compassion—compassion stemming from an assent to the hard demands of justice and from an ardent wish for others to flourish and realize their fullest potential.  Source: Bhikkhhu Bodhi,  American scholar and Theravada monk, Founder and chair of the humanitarian organization Buddhist Global Relief (BGR),  https://www.buddhistglobalrelief.org/images/BGR/newsletters/HH_V07N04_winter.pdf  


Critical Thinking: 

Logical evaluation and analysis of something in order to make a decision or ascertain reality more clearly. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Cultivated Impartiality:

The recognition, through practice, of the arbitrariness and fluidity of categories, such as friends, enemies, strangers, and the way in which people tend to focus more on differences than similarities. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


D

D

 

Discernment:

The process of rationally deciding the most effective means for making a positive contribution to the problem being considered (also known as wisdom). Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Distal compassion:

Wanting to prevent future suffering.Source: Ekman, P. (2014). Moving toward global compassion. Paul Ekman Group.


E

E

Embodied Understanding:

Refers to the deepening and further internalizing of knowledge through practice, so that knowledge

becomes second-nature, part of who one is. This is the third and final level of knowledge in the Three-in-

Three Educational Model of CIT. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Emotional Awareness:

 The ability to be aware of the rising and falling of our

mental experiences on a moment-by-moment basis, and to understand the difference between beneficial and harmful mental states. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Emotions: 

An affective (feeling) response such as anger, fear, sadness, or joy to a stimulus,

based on a person’s appraisal of a situation. Typically, emotions are stronger

the more invested one is in a given situation. Emotions are differentiated from

sensations in that the former are based on evaluations of situations and are

generally not localized in one place in the body.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Emotional hygiene: 

Being able to take care of one’s emotional life for one’s health and happiness,

much as one takes care of one’s physical health through physical hygiene. Cultivating practices of emotional discernment and emotion regulation for the

benefit of both oneself and others.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Emotional intelligence:

 The capacity to be aware of, understand, regulate, and express one’s emotions,

 as well as being aware of and sensitive to the emotions of others.

emotional Recognizing and understanding emotions in oneself and others. A key

literacy component of emotional intelligence and emotional hygiene.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


 

Empathic compassion:

Empathically feeling the emotions experienced by the person who is suffering.Source: Paul Ekman, various publications,  https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/ 


Empathic concern*:


 Empathic concern—other-oriented emotion elicited by and congruent with the perceived welfare of someone in need. Source: Batson, C.D. (2011). Altruism in Humans, Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341065.001.0001/acprof-9780195341065-chapter-2  


 Empathic concern:

Understanding the situation of another and being concerned for their wellbeing.

Empathic concern is other-oriented, as opposed to empathic distress,

which is self-oriented.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Empathic Concern: 

Empathy that focuses on the genuine needs of the other, rather than oneself.Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  



Empathic distress*: 

Feeling overwhelmed or disturbed by the suffering of another person, but in a

self-oriented way. Unlike empathic concern, which leads to genuine compassion and action to help others, empathic distress leads to emotional burnout; action  is taken to relieve one’s own distress first and foremost, not the distress of the other person.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Empathic Distress: 

Occurs when one feels overwhelmed by the suffering of another, often leading to burnout. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Empathy*: 

The capacity to a) be affected by and share the emotional state of another, b) assess the reasons for the other’s state, and c) identify with the other, adopting his or her perspective. This definition extends beyond what exists in many animals, but I employ the term “empathy” even if only the first criterion is met as I believe all of these elements are evolutionarily connected. Source: Waal: F. B. M. d. 1. (2009). The age of empathy: nature's lessons for a kinder society. New York: Harmony Books. http://www.emory.edu/LIVING_LINKS/empathy/faq.html 


Empathy:

The ability to cognitively and emotionally understand the emotions, thoughts, and motivations of another.

Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Empathy:

Understanding and resonating with another’s emotional state. Empathy can be

divided into affective empathy, which is feeling or resonating with another’s

emotional state, and cognitive empathy, which is recognizing or understanding

another’s emotional state. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Empathic fatigue*: 

A state of emotional numbing that can arise from empathic distress. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Ethics:  

Moral principles or values that can help guide one’s thoughts and actions for one’s own and others’ benefit. In SEE Learning, ethics is approached in a secular way based on basic human values derived from common sense, common experience, and science. It is intended to be compatible with those of any religion or no religion. Source: The SEE Learning Companion, Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  



Ethical Mindfulness: 

The ability to keep in mind one’s identity and core values and speak and act accordingly. The three components of ethical mindfulness are Heedfulness, Mindfulness, and Awareness. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Extended Compassion:

The wish to alleviate the suffering of others out of a genuine sense of concern for their well-being beyond one’s in-group, ultimately, to include all humanity. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  

F

F

Feeling: 

An emotion or physical sensation. In SEE Learning, “feeling” is a broader term

that includes both emotions and sensations. Emotions are differentiated from

sensations in that the former are based on evaluations of situations and are

generally not localized in one place in the body.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   


Flourishing: 

Well-being of a person, community, or environment; the ever-expanding

realization of one’s potential.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   


 

Forgiveness:

The releasing of anger and resentment towards a transgressor and a replacement of those with positive feelings. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  

G H I

G

Global compassion: 

A concern to alleviate the suffering of anyone, regardless of their nationality, language, culture, or religion  Source: Paul Ekman, various publications,  https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/  


Gratitude 

An act of self-compassion in which a person recognizes and appreciates the positive aspects of people or situations. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  

H

Heedfulness: 

A recognition that one has the capacity to harm others, both intentionally and unintentionally, and the cautiousness that follows in order to not do so.  Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


I

Imaginative or Cognitive Compassion:

This is based on the sense of self-awareness, when we recognize ourselves as separate beings.  We can imagine the suffering someone is going through from their perspective.Source: Edwin Rutsch, Founding Director of The Center for Building a Culture of Empathy. http://cultureofempathy.com/References/Definitions.htm


Impartiality: 

The diminishment of bias (partiality). Impartiality does not mean apathy towards everyone, rather it is an elevation of appreciation and value of those once considered strangers or enemies.Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Implicit Bias: 

Refers to the unconscious attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understandings, actions, and decisions. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Insight-Based Compassion:

This kind of compassion is more conceptual... insight-based compassion also encompasses the understanding that compassion is a moral imperative—and we can deduce that ignoring suffering can have serious consequences for self, other, and society. When we see someone in need, ideally, we feel morally compelled to act. We don’t just walk by. We don’t feel indifference or moral apathy. Responding to suffering with compassion is the “right” thing to do, an affirmation of respect and human dignity.  Source:  Joan Halifax,  https://artsofthought.com/2018/07/11/three-faces-of-compassion-by-joan-halifax/ 


Interdependence: 

A recognition that individuals are part of a vast ecosystem where they are dependent on other individuals, institutions, and the environment to survive and thrive and where individual actions similarly affect others. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Interdependence:

The principle that objects and events arise from a multiplicity of other causes and conditions and therefore things can be interconnected even across long distances or periods of time. An understanding that our lives do not exist in a vacuum and that there is an inherent relationship between ourselves and broader systems of people. Interdependence is a key characteristic of systems, where one part of a system can impact several other parts through chains of causal relations; its opposite is seeing things as independent, isolated, and not connected to or dependent on anything else.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   

J K L M N O

J

K

L

Love: 

The wish for another person to be truly happy. Genuine love is other-oriented, and not concerned with what the other person can do for oneself. Love (wishing happiness for another) is the companion to compassion (wishing that another be free of suffering).  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu   

M

Meta-awareness: 

Noticing what arises in one’s mind and in one’s experience. The awareness of awareness. This is a key skill in SEE Learning, as it allows students to notice mental processes, bodily sensations, and other experiences consciously before acting or reacting.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,  compassion.emory.edu  


Meta-cognition: 

Awareness of one’s cognitive processes, such as thoughts. Closely related to meta-awareness.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu  


Meditation:

A practice that leads to the cultivation of a particular mental state or quality. There are different forms of meditation, such as stabilizing meditation, where the practitioner absorbs themselves into a single object of focus, and analytical meditation, where the practitioner investigates an object or topic in order to gain insight. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Mindfulness:

Intentionally bringing something into working memory and maintaining one’s awareness on this object so that it becomes familiar and hard to forget. This allows one to remember ethical values in situations of stress, distraction, or temptation. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Mindsight:

The human capacity to perceive the mind of the self and others. It is a powerful lens through which we can understand our inner lives with more clarity, integrate the brain, and enhance our relationships with others. Mindsight is a kind of focused attention that allows us to see the internal workings of our own minds. It helps us get ourselves off of the autopilot of ingrained behaviors and habitual responses. It lets us “name and tame” the emotions we are experiencing, rather than being overwhelmed by them. . Source:  Daniel J. Siegel  https://www.drdansiegel.com/about/mindsight/ 


Mirrored Compassion:

Via mirror neurons, feeling someone's suffering. When we see someone in pain our own pain neurons fire. Source: Edwin Rutsch, Founding Director of The Center for Building a Culture of Empathy. http://cultureofempathy.com/References/Definitions.htm

N

Needs: 

Things that all human beings require in order to have well-being and to flourish, such as safety, nourishment, and companionship.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Neuroplasticity: 

The ability of the brain to change in structure and function through sustained practice and study. Despite

earlier beliefs to the contrary, this ability continues throughout adulthood. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Non-referential compassion:

Compassion that has no object, but is non- referential and universal. Source:  Joan Halifax,  https://artsofthought.com/2018/07/11/three-faces-of-compassion-by-joan-halifax/  


Non-referential compassion is an expression of compassion that has no object. This kind of compassion is universal, boundless, pervasive, inclusive, and without bias. It can be the ground of our very character, at the core of our heart and mind. It does not arise in response to a particular person or situation but permeates our whole being. 


Noticing Suffering: 

Recognizing when a person is experiencing mental or physical distress, which includes obvious forms of suffering such as crying or bleeding from a wound, and less obvious forms of suffering, such afflictive

mental states.  Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


O

P Q R S

P

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

 One of two parts of the autonomic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous  system relaxes body systems, such as breathing and heart rate, and activates (PNS) systems like digestion. Sometimes referred to the “rest and digest” system as opposed to the sympathetic nervous system (“fight or flight”).  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Proximal compassion 

Wanting to alleviate ongoing suffering.Source: Ekman, P. (2014). Moving toward global compassion. Paul Ekman Group.


Q

R

Reciprocity:

 A recognition that there should be mutuality and fairness in exchanges between individuals or groups; for example, if people want kindness shown to them, they should extend kindness to others.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Referential compassion:

The kind of compassion that is most familiar to us, where we direct our compassion toward others. Source:  Joan Halifax,  https://artsofthought.com/2018/07/11/three-faces-of-compassion-by-joan-halifax/ 



Resilience: 

The ability to respond in a productive way to challenges, stress, threats, and unexpected surprises, which might otherwise destabilize a person. Resilience in SEE Learning can be cultivated on an individual level, an interpersonal level (supportive relationships), a structural level (policies and institutions that promote well-being and resilience), and a cultural level (values, beliefs and practices that promote resilience). Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Resilient Zone: 

A state of well-being and regulation for the body and mind, where a person feels in control and able to be their “best self.” Being in the resilient zone is contrasted with being in stuck in the high zone or low zone, where one does not feel in control and where one’s decisions and actions are less likely to be productive. Also known as the Zone of Well-Being or the OK Zone. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   

S

Secular Ethics

A system of universal human values based on the pillars of common humanity and interdependence that adhere to common sense, common experience, and science. Recognizes a single religious answer to the world’s problems can never be universal, because there is no one religion upon which all the people of the world can agree. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Secular Ethics:

A non-sectarian approach to universal ethics, based on common sense, common

experience, and science, that can be acceptable to people of any or no religious

faith. Secular ethics is the approach SEE Learning takes to ethics in education.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Self-Compassion: 

A tenderness towards one’s own limitations and difficulties, combined with an

awareness of one’s ability to cultivate greater well-being and resilience. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Self-Compassion:

Deeply understanding the true causes of happiness and suffering, as well as cultivating greater contentment with, and acceptance of, what we have. The goal of self-compassion is to build confidence and resolve in one’s ability to achieve lasting well-being, resilience, and inner freedom. It is also the ability to see reality more clearly. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  


Self-Compassion:

Feeling compassion for your own pain and suffering (self consoling). Source: Edwin Rutsch, Founding Director of The Center for Building a Culture of Empathy. http://cultureofempathy.com/References/Definitions.htm 


Self-regulation: 

The ability to navigate one’s emotions, one’s nervous system, and one’s

behaviors so as to promote well-being and avoid harm to oneself and others.Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Sensation: 

Bodily feedback that is felt in a particular part of the body, such as warmth, cold, pain, numbness, looseness, tightness, heaviness, lightness, and so on. Sensations can be experienced as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral.Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): 

A life-long process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand and manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Social Intelligence: 

 An ability to be aware of others and relate to them in a positive and productive way; the ability to understand human interactions on individual and collective levels.Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Sympathetic Joy/Symhedonia: 

The ability to rejoice in another’s good fortune. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/ 


Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

 One of two parts of the autonomic nervous system, the SNS prepares the body nervous system for danger, changing muscle tone and heart rate and turning off systems like  digestion and the body’s ability to relax and rest. It is called the body’s “fight or flight” system. Excessive stress or threat can overtax the SNS resulting in dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


Systems Perspective:

An understanding of the interconnected elements of a given system and the dynamics of that system, including the causes and conditions that contribute to benefits and harms for individuals and communities. Source: Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019,  https://www.compassionateintegrity.org/  



Systems thinking:

The ability to understand how objects and events exist interdependently with other objects and events in complex networks of causality.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   

T U V W X Y Z

V

Values: 

What an individual or society esteems and deems most important; principles that underlie and orient an individual’s or a society’s actions and aspirations. Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu   


W

Well-being:

A state of being happy, healthy, and satisfied; can be physical, emotional, social,

cultural, and environmental.  Source: The SEE Learning Companion,   Emory University 2019,   compassion.emory.edu  

X

Y

Z

About

Aim

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The glossary is designed to, with time, provide a comprehensive resource of key concepts used within interdisciplinary  Prosociality, Empathy, Altruism, Compassion (Peace) studies in easy-access online format, something that is has not been available.


The glossary contains 1-3 definitions of each concept.


Several concepts are debated among the researchers.


The glossary aims to to ensure consistency in terminology, i.e to avoid including clearly contradictory definitions in order to reduce risks for confusion among glossary users.   For example altruism, a much debated concept, will only be added as per motivational altruism.


Since contradictory definitions remains common within compassion science , a future aim is to also

present and draw attention to contrasting alternatives. This way,  important nuances, richness and differences in understanding will be documented. The glossary will add sub-pages to explain conceptual variations/divergences of certain concepts.


For the time being debated concepts will be marked with *, to signal relative significant variation within the research body. 


The content manager of this glossary is a Ph.D student from Sweden within the field of  compassion-based ethics and humanitarian aid from Åbo Akademi University in collaboration with the Stockholm School of Theology and Human Rights. 


 https://mariathorin.se/ 


https://www.linkedin.com/in/maria-thorin-89662224/


Supports  
https://withhumanityforhumanity.org  


Offers compassion lectures and training through (currently Swedish text only)

www.compassioninvestment.com 

Sources

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The glossary will be regularly updated and draws on a selection of concepts from the following institutional sources and individual authors (many more to come):   


Emory University:

The SEE Learning Companion, Emory University 2019, compassion.emory.edu 

·

 Batson, C.D. (2011). Altruism in Humans, Oxford: Oxford University Press p. 11,  https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341065.001.0001/acprof-9780195341065-chapter-2 


 Bhikkhhu Bodhi,  American scholar and Theravada monk, Founder and chair of the humanitarian organization Buddhist Global Relief (BGR),   


Edwin Rutsch, Founding Director of

The Center for Building a Culture of Empathy. http://cultureofempathy.com/References/Definitions.htm 


Life University:

 Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Michael Karlin and Life University, 2019. Compassionate Integrity Facilitator Guide - Life University’s Center for Compassion, Integrity and Secular Ethics. CCISE 

https://www.compassionateintegrity.org


Frans de Waal:  Waal: F. B. M. d. 1. (2009). The age of empathy: nature's lessons for a kinder society. New York: Harmony Books.  http://www.emory.edu/LIVING_LINKS/empathy/faq.html   


Paul Gilbert, various publications.

· 

Paul Ekman,  Ekman, P. (2014). Moving toward global compassion. Paul Ekman Group.  https://www.paulekman.com/blog/what-is-global-compassion-and-how-can-we-attain-it/ 

· 

Joan Halifax, various publications.



Contribute

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Missing a Compassion Concept? Please advise  and contact us below.



Forthcoming terms include:


Altruism

Arithmetic of Compassion

Brain plasticity 

Compassion Fatigue

Compassion Resilience


Elevation

Emotion(al) Contagion

Emotion Recognition

Empathic Reactivity

Empathic Accuracy

Emotion Resonance

Familial Compassion

Fear of Compassion

Golden Rule 

Heroic Compassion

Mirror Neurons

Neuroception

Neuroscience 

 Non-referential compassion

Personal Distress

Pity

Polyvagal theory

Psychic numbing 

Sentient Compassion

Sympathy

Ubuntu

Universalism

Vagus

Vagal brake

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The Compassion Glossary